Paper: A Survey of the Seven Wonders of the World

The SEVEN wonders of the ancient world are: Artemision at Ephesus, the temple of the Greek goddess ARTEMIS (also the Roman goddess Diana), was begun in 541 B.C. at Ephesus (now a site in Turkey) and completed 220 years later. The temple was 425 feet long and 220 feet wide with 127 marble columns, each 60 feet tall. The gates were made of cypress and the ceiling of cedar. The temple was destroyed by the Goths in 262 A.D. The Colossus of Rhodes, a 100-foot-tall bronze statue of the sun god Helios, was erected between 292 and 280 B.C. in the harbor at Rhodes. According to legend, it appeared to stand astride the harbor but was actually on a promontory overlooking it. the statue was toppled by an earthquake around 224 B.C. and lay in ruins until 653 A.D. when the remains were sold as scrap metal. The Hanging gardens of Babylon, a series of five terraces of glazed brick, each 50 feet above the next, was erected by King Nebuchadnezzar for his wife, Amytis, in 562 B.C. The terraces, featuring rare and exotic plants, were connected by a winding stairway. A pumping device supplied water so the gardens could be irrigated by fountains. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, a 140-foot-high white marble structure, was built in 352 B.C. at Halicarnassus (now a site in Turkey) in memory of King Mausolus of Caria. Its massive base contained a sarcophagus and supported 36 columns crowned with a stepped pyramid on which was constructed a marble chariot. It was. destroyed for the use of stone to build a castle for the Knights of Saint John in 1402. Olympian Zues, a statue of the supreme god in Greek mythology, was executed in gold and ivory for the temple at Olympia. The figure of the seated Zeus was 40 feet tall and rested on a base that was 12 feet high. The portions of the statue representing the flesh of the god were covered with marble and his cloak was made of gold. Golden lions rested near his feet. The Pyramids of Egypt, were started by Khufu (Cheops) around 2700 B.C. as tombs for the ancient kings. The three largest and finest were erected during the Fourth dynasty at Gizeh, near Cairo. The largest of the group is the Khufu Pyramid, built of limestone blocks from a base 756 feet wide on each side and covering an area of 13 acres. It is 482 feet high. Smaller pyramids were built for wives and other members of the royal families. The Tower of Pharos, was a great lighthouse built on the island of Pharos, at Alexandria, Egypt, during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 285 B.C. Also called The Pharos, it was 500 feet tall with a ramp leading to the top. Light was produced with a fire and reflectors and could be seen from a distance of 42 miles. ...