Paper: A Report on the Social Life of the Miwoks, a Non-Nomadic Tribe in the Yosemite Valley

They were at times coated with a layer of pine needles. About 8-15 feet in diameter, these homes were small. They did not bathe, but instead sat in sweat houses until they sweat the smell off and then ran out and jumped in a cold stream (Chilly Willy). Most slept on Deerskins, but a few slept on willow frames lifting them only inches from the ground, while the chief slept on a bearskin. The fire, at the center of each U-ma-cha, was used for cooking and heat. It was vital to have this fire burning constantly. There was also a ceremonial sweat house used for special ceremonies. This had a roof of 5 inches thick and was in the center of the village. The foods the Miwoks ate are also another step. With plentiful amounts of food in the Yosemite Valley, the Miwok stayed where they were. With out the need to move about in a nomadic fashion, their villages grew. This meant for a large need of food. Their main food was acorns. The women prepared this by cracking and shelling the acorns, then drying them. After drying, they would remove the meats and grind the kernels into meal. The Miwoks also ate deer and ever bear from time to time. They hunted the deer with spears and arrows tipped with obsidian points. Their bows were hand made and often of cedar or willow, worked from a straight branch to a bent one. They also feasted upon squirrel, bird, rabbit, Quail. They fished for Rainbow Trout. They also ate plants, berries, and mushrooms, as well as insects (Yummy). They also used many plants and animal meats for healing illnesses. They used many materials for almost anything, whistles for ceremonies, digging, making weapons, and so on. Some of these many materials included Deer antlers, rabbit bones, obsidian, and deer skin. Bark, plant roots, and tree branches were also gathered for things like baskets and scoop baskets for fishing. They wove nets of wood for capturing animals....